Gold Weights and Measures
A gram is defined as a metric unit of weight equal to one thousandth of a kilogram, The unit of mass is also known as the gramme in some regions of the world.
The gram is part of the metric system of units for mass, The first country to adopt this form of measure was France in the late 18th century, However in 1960 the conference for weights and measures created the International system of units, This is abbreviated as SI which came from the French spelling "Le Système international d'unités."
Other SI base units within the standard system other than the Kilogram are the Metre, Second, Ampere, The Kelvin, Candela and the Mole.
480 grains = 1 ounce troy
A British system which was defined in 1824 by the weights and measures act of parliament, This system was used widely through out the British empire until 1959, Later in 1863 the Imperial pound otherwise known by the French word Avoirdupois was redefined at 0.45359237 kilograms.
20 stones avoirdupois = 1 ton avoirdupois
14 pounds avoirdupois = 1 stone avoirdupois
16 ounces avoirdupois = 1 pound avoirdupois
1 ounce avoirdupois = 28.349523 grams approx.
1 pound avoirdupois = 453.59237 grams
1 ton avoirdupois = 2240 pounds avoirdupois
The Avoirdupois is a French system based on the pound equalling 16 ounces
The pennyweight (abbreviated as dwt) was a system of measures used until 1878 when an act of parliament outdated the system, Historically the pennyweight was 1/240th of the troy pound, this was the basis of the pre-decimal "pounds, shilling and Pence (d, denarius)" system that Great Britain used until decimalisation in 1971
Denarius is a roman term that stuck with the penny until decimalisation, this is why in old money it was referred to as 1d rather than 1p, or 1dwt rather than 1pwt..
24 grains = 1 pennyweight
20 pennyweights = 1 ounce troy
240 pennyweights = 1 pound troy
This was a unit of measure that was used up until 1527 in Great Britain, This was based on the wheat grain system rather than the barley grain system which the majority of England used at the time.
It is assumed the name was derived from Tower hill which was the former home of the British Mint (The Royal Mint).
At this time, 20 pennyweights were equal to the gold ounce, and 12 gold ounces were equal to the pound (240 dwt)
1 Tower pound = 5400 grains
This is equal to 225 Pennyweights (dwt) or 11.25 oz troy.
This system of measures is part of the Avoirdupois weights and measures. In Great Britain, two different systems, although similar were used, The common system was based on barley grain, however the mint at the time based their grain weights on the wheat grain.
4 grains = 1 carat
24 grains =1 pennyweight
480 grains = 1 troy ounce
5760 grains = 1 troy pound
437.5 grains = 1 ounce avoirdupois
7000 grains = 1 pound avoirdupois
1 grain = 0.0648 grams (0.06479891)
15.432 grains = 1 gram
This is a traditional unit of measure that originates from South Asia, Sometimes referred to as tolah or tole, The unit itself was the base for the British Indian system of measures and weight which was introduced in 1833, Although the measurement itself had been in use for many years prior to this.
The first reference to this unit of mass dates back to when 100 tola seeds were equal to 1 tola (tol, the Sanskrit word for weight or to weigh)
180 grains = 1 tola
11.66 grams = 1 tola
0.375 troy ounces = 1 tola
For further information on these units of measure and weights, please check out the vast base of information that is Wikipedia